The publications linked below are relevant to alcohol law enforcement; the views and opinions expressed in the articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of the NLLEA.


Training Local Law Enforcement on the Role and Scope of Alcohol Law Enforcement Agencies

June 2017

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) funded the NLLEA to strengthen local law enforcement’s understanding of the role of Alcohol Law Enforcement agencies in preventing impaired driving and protecting public safety. The project was funded for a 21-month period between September 25, 2015 and June 30, 2017. During that time, NLLEA awarded contracts to eight funded ALE agencies to train at least 20 local law enforcement agencies throughout each State on the authority and scope of work conducted by ALE agents.   NLLEA found that all eight States increased local law enforcement agencies’ understanding of the role and scope of ALE agencies and in all eight States new contacts were established between local law enforcement and the State ALE.

Increased Alcohol Law Enforcement Involvement in Impaired Driving Crackdowns

October 2016

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration funded the NLLEA to increase Alcohol Law Enforcement (ALE) agencies’ involvement in impaired driving crackdown enforcement efforts by collaborating with other state and local law enforcement agencies on crackdown efforts. This report summarizes the involvement of three law enforcement agencies during the 2014 impaired driving crackdowns, including the use of a toolkit and technical documents on alcohol law enforcement strategies that can be used during impaired driving crackdowns that were developed by the NLLEA.

Evaluation of Source Investigations Demonstration Program

July 2016

To improve the use of source investigations among alcohol law enforcement, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration supported the NLLEA in their efforts to create a comprehensive source investigations toolkit. The NLLEA also oversaw two demonstration projects from June 1, 2013, through May 31, 2014, during which time the NLLEA worked with the Indiana State Excise Police and the Massachusetts Alcoholic Beverages Control Commission, to implement a comprehensive source investigation program utilizing the toolkit. This report examines the source investigation toolkit components and the results of the demonstration projects.

Source Investigations: A Tool to Combat Impaired Driving

November 2011

In 2008, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration funded the National Liquor Law Enforcement Association and the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation to review law enforcement crash investigative programs and methods used to identify sources of alcohol sales and consumption related to those crashes. Many State and local law enforcement agencies have implemented source investigations as a strategy to determine where alcohol was purchased and/or consumed when an alcoholimpaired driving crash has occurred.

Alcohol and Crime in Wyoming

September 2010

This report contains alcohol-related information collected in all twenty-three counties in Wyoming during a twelve-month time period (July 1, 2009 through June 30, 2010) by the Wyoming Association of Sheriffs and Chiefs of Police. Information was collected from a total of 18,863 persons who were arrested and subsequently detained in a county detention facility. The alcohol-related arrest data contained in this report provides a detailed, statistical picture of the impact of alcohol abuse on crime in Wyoming.

Legal Research Report: Laws Prohibiting Alcohol Sales to Intoxicated Persons

June 2009

In September 2006, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration funded the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation to conduct legal research on State statutes and regulations that pertain to alcohol sales and/or service to intoxicated persons. The research was to explore the variation in State sales to intoxicated persons (SIP) laws and include examination of case law to assess how statutory language has been interpreted in court cases. The research was also to include a qualitative component that collected data on key issues specific to SIP law enforcement and adjudication practices. This report summarizes the findings of this research.

Demonstration Project Report: A Campaign to Reduce Impaired Driving Through Retail-Oriented Enforcement in Washington State

April 2008

The Washington State Liquor Control Board (WSLCB) launched its DUI Reduction Program in 2002 with the immediate goal of reducing sales to intoxicated people through enforcement directed at bars and restaurants. The program targets those establishments that produce high levels of DUI arrests. The ultimate and long-term program goal is to reduce DUI arrests and alcohol-related traffic crashes.

Hidden Ownership of Alcohol Establishments: Problem Significance and Addressing the Crime

April 2006

This publication examines the topic of hidden ownership of retail alcohol establishments and details why hidden ownership investigations should be pursued by law enforcement agencies. It includes guidance on how to conduct investigations and how to build a strong case for prosecution. It is intended to serve as a supplement to training and technical assistance provided by staff of the National Center for Alcohol Law Enforcement (NCALE).

Alcohol and Violent Crime: What Is The Connection? What Can Be Done?

April 2006

This publication examines the relationship between alcohol and violent crime. It provides an overview of research on the topic, detailing what is known about a causal link between alcohol and violence, how alcohol use escalates and intensifies violence, the cost of alcohol-related crime, and how alcohol outlet density serves as a reliable predictor of violent crime. The publication then briefly identifies three key strategies that can be employed by law enforcement agencies in order to reduce alcohol-related violence. Case-study examples demonstrating how three enforcement-led efforts to reduce alcohol-related violent crime achieved success are provided. The document concludes with a summary and recommendations.

Enforcement of Laws Prohibiting Alcohol Sales to Intoxicated Patrons (Wisconsin)

November 2005

This publication examines the problem of alcohol sales to intoxicated persons and provides information about enforcement strategies designed to counter this illegal behavior. It begins with a brief review of the research on the topic and an overview of relevant Wisconsin state law. Following these introductory materials is a practice guide for law enforcement agencies and staff, focusing on problem establishment identification and both proactive and reactive responses to problem establishments. The guide includes a discussion on the types of evidence necessary to obtain successful prosecutions of violations. The conclusion provides a summary of the key guidance points articulated throughout the document.

The Role of Alcohol Beverage Control Agencies in the Enforcement and Adjudication of Alcohol Laws

July 2005

This publication prepared by the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration examines the role of State ABC agencies in the prevention of alcohol-related problems, focusing on agency powers to license establishments, enforce laws and regulations, and adjudicate violations. It provides a snapshot of enforcement activities across the 50 States and the District of Columbia and offers recommendations for enhancing State ABC agency roles.


Preventing Over-Consumption of Alcohol: Sales to the Intoxicated and “Happy Hour” (Drinks Specials) Laws

February 2005

Prepared by the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, this publication examines the relationship between serving practices and overconsumption of alcohol. The research discussed suggests that enforcement of laws regulating serving practices can increase compliance with laws and reduce alcohol-related problems. It offers an analysis of state laws addressing service to intoxicated person, “happy hours”, and other reduced price promotions and identifies promising enforcement approaches.

Strategies and outcomes in translating alcohol harm reduction research into practice: the Alcohol Linking Program

September 2004

Many of you who attended the 2003 Annual Meeting in Atlanta may remember presentations made by John Wiggers, a researcher from Australia who reported on a successful program in New South Wales that targets establishments cited as place of last drink by arrestees. When these establishments were selected for intervention by enforcement and education, significant reductions in alcohol-related incidents resulted. This article reports on the processes and strategies that made this possible and provides a case study example illustrating how collaboration between law enforcement and researchers resulted in documented reductions in alcohol-related criminal incidents.

Alcohol Beverage Control: Legal Research Report

April 2003

This legal technical document is based on legal research on the key variables for specific alcohol policies and highlights some of the exceptions to these policies that can impede law enforcement efforts. Prepared by the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, it offers analysis of 12 alcohol beverage control policies addressing underage drinking and impaired driving.